One of the most famous living abstract artists, James Siena is best known for the intricate geometric abstractions that he creates freehand by imposing upon himself a set of "rules" that he calls "visual algorithms." Beginning with a basic unit—a shape or a set of lines—he allows these algorithms, which are essentially predetermined permutations, to guide the progression of each work. The resulting drawing or painting is a pattern that is not only visually complex, but also logical and formulaic. "They're procedures," Siena says of the rules governing his paintings. "Each painting has to do with carrying out a procedure, no matter how simple. It's the task of making it physical." Though rigorously executed and highly procedural, Siena's abstract compositions transcend geometry, producing psychological, and some might even say meditative or spiritual, effects.